Transmisión materno-infantil de Trypanosoma cruzi: Búsqueda de marcadores inmunológicos en mujeres embarazadas con infección crónica que permitan predecir el riesgo de infección congénita

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    Circulating cytokine and chemokine profiles of trypanosoma cruzi-infected women during pregnancy and its association with congenital transmission
    (Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), 2021-9-15) Volta, Viviana J. ; Bustos, Patricia L. ; González, Carolina ; Natale, María Ailen ; Perrone, Alina E ; Milduberger, Natalia A. ; Laucella, Susana A. ; Bua, Jacqueline
    Background. Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, can be transmitted to the offspring of infected women, which constitutes an epidemiologically significant parasite transmission route in nonendemic areas. It is relevant to evaluate differ entially expressed factors in T. cruzi-infected pregnant women as potential markers of Chagas congenital transmission. Methods. Circulating levels of 12 cytokines and chemokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or cytometric bead array in T. cruzi-infected and uninfected pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and control groups of T. cruzi-infected and uninfected nonpregnant women. Results. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected women showed a proinflammatory Th1-biased profile, with increased levels of tumor ne crosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-15, and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). Uninfected pregnant women presented a biased response towards Th2/Th17/Treg profiles, with increased plasma levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-17A, and IL-10. Finally, we identified that high parasitemia together with low levels of TNF-a, IL-15, and IL-17, low TNF-a/IL-10 ratio, and high IL-12p70 levels are factors associated with an increased probability of Chagas congenital transmission. Conclusions. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant women who did not transmit the infection to their babies exhibited a dis tinct proinflammatory cytokine profile that might serve as a potential predictive marker of congenital transmission.