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    Smooth versus textured implants and their association with the frequency of capsular contracture in primary breast augmentation
    (American Society of Plastic Surgery, 2022) Filiciani, Sandra ; Siemienczuk, Guillermo Federico ; Etcheverry, Mariano G.
    Background: Capsular contracture is the most frequent complication of breast implant augmentation. Although studies indicate that textured implants have a low incidence of contracture, they have been associated with anaplastic cell lymphoma, which influences the choice of surface. This study estimated and compared the annual capsular contracture rate of both smooth and textured implants in primary breast implants. Methods: Two hundred fifty-three patients (506 implants) were evaluated from January of 2017 to July of 2019; 42.2 percent of the implants were smooth and 57.8 percent were textured. The inframammary approach was used in the subfascial (55.3 percent) and submuscular (44.7 percent) pockets. The primary outcome was the appearance of capsular contracture (Baker grade II, III, and IV) within the first postoperative year. Results: Smooth implants had a higher capsular contracture rate at 1 year postoperatively compared with textured implants, although with borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06). Smooth surface breast implants in the subfascial plane had a 4-fold higher risk of contracture than those with a textured surface in the same plane (OR, 4.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 12.4). However, when placed in the submuscular plane, both textures had a similar contracture risk. The rate of contracture was similar after 2 years postoperatively (p = 0.21). Conclusions: Using the inframammary approach and a standardized technique, there were no significant differences in the incidence of capsular contracture between the smooth and textured implants. In the subfascial plane, the contracture rate with smooth implants was higher than with textured implants. However, in the submuscular plane, there was no difference between the surfaces. Clinical question/level of evidencw: Therapeutic, III.